Why couldn’t they be enumerated in the last census?
The census forms used by officials during the 2017 census did not have any columns to record the population of persons with disabilities. Officials were handed new forms to enumerate the population of PWDs (and transgender persons) three months after the census was over, at which point all households had already been surveyed once. The Pakistan Bureau of Statistics was reluctant to count these persons citing organisational constraints. The Supreme Court ruled that a second round of surveys be undertaken to tabulate the population of PWDs.
Added to the organisational constraints of PBS in conducting the census, households are reluctant to divulge information about family members with disabilities given the stigma and social prejudice attached to their status. In stark contrast to the 13.4 per cent estimated by international bodies, the government counted a meagre 0.48 per cent or 0.99 million out of 207.7 million enumerated in the 2017 census.
What challenges do they face?
PWDs face a host of issues that stem from more structural ones such as accessibility issues to those that are attitudinal such as discrimination and stigmas imposed by society. Some challenges best suited to be addressed by policy interventions are listed below.
Low levels of education and employment
Levels of literacy, employment, and financial independence are low for persons with disabilities in Pakistan. The Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund found that the literacy rate of persons with disabilities is as low as 28 per cent, compared to an average of 58 per cent of Pakistan’s overall population. It has been found that lack of awareness regarding availability of schools and training centres for PWDs is a major factor adversely affecting their education and training. Inaccessibility, affordability, and training of teachers have also been identified as exacerbating factors. Figures citing employment of PWDs are also low. Only 14 per cent of PWDs are estimated to be employed. As a result, Pakistan is losing at least 4.6 per cent of its GDP. Many employers believe that persons with disabilities are not adequately trained or educated to perform well in jobs and are reluctant to hire them. Added to this, accessibility also poses an obstacle. Given that PWDs have low education and employment levels, 70 per cent have to rely on their family members for financial support.
Lack of clarity regarding rights and responsibilities
Awareness of rights, provisions, and government interventions is limited amongst people with disabilities. This is either because they are unable to access avenues of information dissemination or because targeted awareness campaigns have not been launched. Hence, unlike many other minority groups, people with disabilities are impaired from taking a rights-based approach in improving their lives and bringing about positive change. Rights awareness for PWDs is also largely absent amongst the general public who more often than not do not recognise their role in ensuring the implementation of employment quotas, efficient spending of funds reserved for PWDs, and other such provisions.
Barriers to political participation and lack of representation
Not a single person with a disability has ever been elected into the Parliament of Pakistan. There are no reserved seats for PWDs in the Parliament nor any quotas set in political parties. Voices of persons with disabilities are largely absent from law making bodies. Added to this is scant participation of persons with disabilities as political agents in a democracy. Elections are upheld as a touchstone of democratic participation, and voter turnout for PWDs is estimated to be very low. Apathy on part of the state is such that in the last election cycle the exact voter turnout of PWDs was not even recorded. It is reported that the absence of accessible voting booths in many constituencies, poorly trained election booth staff who did not how to engage with PWDs, and lack of awareness on party manifestos and voting procedures were some factors that made the elections a largely inaccessible exercise for PWDs.
Vulnerability to abuse
Global trends reveal that women with disabilities are more likely to face sexual violence and abuse. Additionally, some people with disabilities are denied autonomy such as when they are forced into institutions, subjected to involuntary sterilisation or when they are perceived as incompetent to study or work simply because they are impaired.
What has been done for them?
Laws Enacted and International Conventions for PWDs
Presence in Public Life
Interventions are needed in socio-economic arrangements that normalise the presence of PWDs in public life, such as the creation of jobs; infrastructure overhauls that enable access and utilisation of public spaces are required; political participation should be mainstreamed to make PWDs’ representation possible in decision making forums.
Usage of public infrastructure
Access to public accommodations (hospitals, schools, markets, libraries, et cetera) is necessary for attaining healthcare, education and recreation, and critical to livelihoods and political participation of PWDs. PWDs often report a lack of accessible transport as a major obstacle to their labor force participation. Similarly, an absence of accessible toilets and building entrances also pose difficulties to them.
Signage, Braille & Public Safety
Structural modifications to public facilities, equipment with inclusive design features, and communication of information in disability friendly formats can all enhance participation of PWDs in public life. Large print and braille signage in buildings and outdoor public spaces, presentation of information such as job postings, emergency and disaster announcements in braille, large print, and audio and video format will also assist in the inclusion and safety of PWDs.
Additionally, a strengthening of safety mechanisms is required for PWDs to navigate public spaces independently. Law enforcement agencies must be trained in ways that allow them to communicate with a wide range of PWDs, from those who have physical impairments to those who have intellectual disabilities.
Affirmative Policy and Political Participation
It is necessary that PWDs be able to access voting booths during elections, attend rallies and corner meetings, work as election observers, and run as electoral candidates. The Election Commission and Supreme Court’s directives helped create access for PWDs in the general elections of 2018, but several polling booths did not have the requisite equipment and materials in place for easy access and use. Equally important is access to public information in the form of leaflets, party manifestos, and voting guidelines.
Employment allows PWDs to become independent and regain personal dignity often diminished by social attitudes and stigmas. Employment offers the most effective manner of integrating PWDs in public life. Awareness programs and general rules of engagement with PWDs need to be disseminated among employers and co-workers so that PWDs are not scrutinised, unnecessarily questioned or treated with undue sympathy. Some countries have done this through training programs lead by PWDs, offering them opportunities for employment while also creating awareness.
A culture of respect and dignity must be created for disability and PWDs, without subjecting them to undue sympathy and ostracisation. It is problematic to think of persons with disabilities as ‘brave’ or as ‘heroes’ as this reinforces their status and places their impairment at the forefront of who they are. Persons with disabilities should be recognised for their personality traits rather than their impairments.
PWDs have varied needs and preferences. When hiring a person with a disability, it would be helpful to ask if they have any special needs, and how best they themselves would prefer to describe their impairment. Unfortunately, colloquial expression does not have a broad range of words to describe or convey disabilities.
For drafting policies or referring to PWDs in English the list below provides a helpful guide on what terms to use. Given the many words that are employed for persons with disabilities, it is likely that outdated, offensive, or discriminatory terms are used when talking about them. Some useful pointers for talking to and about persons with disabilities are listed below:
Given the many terms that are used for persons with disabilities, it is likely that outdated, offensive, or discriminatory terms are employed when talking about them. Some useful pointers for talking to and about persons with disabilities are listed below:
Referring to PWDs
Persons with Disability
Able Bodied, Persons without Disabilities
Handicapped, Differently-abled, Cripple, Crippled, Victim, Retarded, Stricken, Poor, Unfortunate, Abnormal, Special Needs
Disabled Spaces, Special Spaces
It is generally acceptable to use the terms “disability”, “disabled”, and “people with disabilities” but if you think a person with disability feels uncomfortable by your use of these words then ask them how they prefer to be addressed.
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Sindh Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2018, 11th June 2018 http://itacec.org/document/2018/Sindh-Empowerment-of-PWD-Act-XLVIII-of-2018-june-11-2018.pdf
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